RDT NEWS

  • Archives

  • « Back to news items

    asymmetric warfare book

    7. 13,842 ratings — published, avg rating 4.08 — This book was my introduction to drones and terrorism plus asymmetric warfare. Asymmetric Warfare Group RUSSIAN NEW GENERATION WARFARE HANDBOOK Version 1: December 2016 A handbook for U.S. Army formations to increase awareness of Russian tactics, near- peer capabilities, and current U.S. non-material solutions to mitigate the threat posed by Russian proxies. 2,102 ratings — The great Prussian strategist Carl von Clausewitz understood that warfare is an extension of “politics4 through other means.”5“Asymmetric warfare” is a term that waxed in the realm of U.S. government documents and academic writing in the late 1990s but waned in the year 2003, and it … Sandor Fabian (Ph. Just a moment while we sign you in to your Goodreads account. You Save 8%. 2,111 ratings — 811 ratings — published 2008, avg rating 3.84 — published 2018, avg rating 4.16 — Asymmetric warfare definition is - warfare that is between opposing forces which differ greatly in military power and that typically involves the use of unconventional weapons and tactics (such as those associated with guerrilla warfare and terrorist attacks). Homeland (Praeger Security International) by Anthony H. Cordesman and a great selection of related books, art and collectibles available now at AbeBooks.com. 8 ratings — published 2020, avg rating 3.88 — Read "Asymmetric Warfare in South Asia The Causes and Consequences of the Kargil Conflict" by available from Rakuten Kobo. How far we have come since the days of World War I and World War II in the ways wars are fought! The popularity of the term dates from Andrew J.R. Mack's 1975 article \"Why Big Nations Lose Small Wars\" in World Politics, in which \"asymmetric\" 2 ratings — milSuite provides a collection of tools for Department of Defense (DoD) personnel that facilitates professional networking, learning, and innovation through knowledge sharing and collaboration. published 2010, avg rating 3.00 — published 2007, avg rating 3.93 — Current price is $25.9, Original price is $28. 4,256 ratings — published 1994, avg rating 3.79 — Rod Thornton demystifies asymmetric tactics and strategy, and identifies the actors and activities typically associated with them.” Alice Hill, University of Leeds, ©1997-2021 Barnes & Noble Booksellers, Inc. 33 East 17th Street, New York, NY 10003. Home Leaders. McMaster, Survival, “An interesting primer on asymmetric warfare ... a timely foil to the numerous authors who predict the decline of the state as it struggles to deal with various non-state threats.” Journal of Peace Research, “For nearly a decade defence services and security specialists have warned that asymmetric conflict such as terrorism and insurgency were shaping the global strategic environment rather than traditional war between states. Asymmetric warfare is frequently described as a conflict between two parties where the ‘weaker’ party aims to offset its comparatively fewer resources by making use of particular tactical advantages. 17 ratings — 2,425 ratings — Shop Asymmetric warfare books at Alibris. published 2007, avg rating 3.94 — Click or Press Enter to view the items in your shopping bag or Press Tab to interact with the Shopping bag tooltip, Asymmetric Warfare: Threat and Response in the 21st Century / Edition 1. published 2018, avg rating 4.15 — Enabling JavaScript in your browser will allow you to experience all the features of our site. Get Book. It is one volume in a series titled ‘Issues in twenty-first century warfare’. published 2005, avg rating 3.53 — In recent years, the nature of conflict has changed. Terrorism, Asymmetric Warfare, and Weapons of Mass Destruction: Defending the U.S. avg rating 3.90 — published 2013, avg rating 4.58 — 404 ratings — The U.S. Army Asymmetric Warfare Group (AWG) is charged with identifying Army and joint force capability gaps to DOTMLPF-P, and developing solutions to those gaps. published 2009, avg rating 4.17 — Terrorist tactics, such as hijackings and suicide bombings, are also considered to be asymmetrical, both because they tend to involve a smaller, weaker group attacking a stronger one and also because attacks on civilians are by definition one-way warfare. published 2012, avg rating 3.78 — The author raises important issues that need to be carefully considered by policy-makers.” Fran Gregory, University of Southampton, “Anyone wishing to understand the threat posed to the West by asymmetric warfare will find this book a sobering guide. published 2001, avg rating 4.06 — published 1941, avg rating 4.04 — Homeland Anthony H. Cordesman Greenwood Publishing Group , 2002 - Political Science - 448 pages 110 ratings — published 2016, avg rating 4.27 — He seeks to provide answers to key questions, such as how weaker opponents apply asymmetric techniques against the Western world, and shows how the Wests military superiority can be seriously undermined by asymmetric threats. published 1963, avg rating 3.81 — Thornton’s work is such a comprehensive study of asymmetrical warfare that it should be required reading at all the service academies in the United States and the United Kingdom as well as bed-side reading for those commanders currently in Iraq and Afghanistan.” International Affairs, “A useful primer for students of contemporary and defence affairs. It should appeal to a wide readership in universities, the armed forces, government agencies and among the general public. published 2006, avg rating 4.35 — From terrorism to information warfare, the Wests air power, sea power and land power are open to attack from clever, but much weaker, enemies. 15 ratings — Error rating book. Anthrax. published, avg rating 4.40 — Up to 50% Off Select Toys and Collectibles, Knock Knock Gifts, Books & Office Supplies, 25% Off B&N Exclusive Holiday Faux Fur Throws, B&N Exclusive Holiday Totes - $4.99 with Purchase, Learn how to enable JavaScript on your browser. JSTOR (December 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) The Philippine–American War (1899–1902) was an armed conflict between the United States and Filipino revolutionaries . Plague Wars book. From terrorism to information warfare, the Wests air power, sea power and land power are open to attack from clever, but much weaker, enemies. Group Command About Us. 74 ratings — A well written book on an interesting topic that will appeal to both laymen and academics. 5,354 ratings — published 2004, avg rating 3.81 — 1,600 ratings — 159 ratings — 2,736 ratings — Search AWG: Search. Search AWG: Search. Asymmetric warfare is war between belligerents whose relative military power differs significantly, or whose strategy or tactics differ significantly. This is typically a war between a standing, professional army and an insurgency or resistance movement militias who often have status of unlawful combatants. published 2015, avg rating 3.71 — This book is the first detailed analysis of the myriad insurgent groups working in … 4,381 ratings — The Sling and the Stone book. Many have tried to describe this new type of warfare, and many catchphrases and buzzwords have come and gone: low-intensity conflict, military operations other than war, asymmetric warfare, fourth-generation warfare, irregular warfare. published 2014, avg rating 4.00 — 7,423 ratings — Find a huge variety of new & used Asymmetric warfare books online including bestsellers & rare titles at the best prices. D.) is a NATO Special Operations Subject Matter Expert and Curriculum Developer at the NATO Special Operations School in Chievres, Belgium and a Research Fellow at the School of Politics, Security and International Affairs at the University of Central Florida. Book Description: Provides an understanding of the relationship between classical military theory and modern asymmetric conflict, current asymmetric threats facing the U.S., and a clear set of lessons learned from recent American experiences in Lebanon (1982-1984), Somalia (1992-1994), and Afghanistan (2001-2004). In the last chapter of our book, we looked at the history of how military revolutions appeared and at current and future trends in warfare. Recently, Asymmetric Warfare Group (AWG) ran a contested micro experiment at Fort AP Hill, Virginia (Thorn, 2020). 328 ratings — published 2001, avg rating 3.50 — It further seeks to identify enemy threats and develop methods to defeat those threats. Recent cyberattacks and intrusions into sensitive targets of US and other advanced nations demonstrate the growing strength of China’s cyberwarfare. 1 rating — published 2009, avg rating 4.10 — 1 rating — 213 ratings — 82 ratings — The most popularized work on Chinese asymmetric warfare is a book written by two PLA colonels in 1999 entitled “Unrestricted Warfare,” or 超限战, which literally means war without boundaries. Modern theories like the revolution in military affairs, the fourth generation of war, and others suggest that asymmetric warfare will dominate future confrontations and replace traditional linear battles. 394 ratings — published 1970, avg rating 3.71 — 159 ratings — Plague. In recent years, the nature of conflict has changed. published 1977, avg rating 4.13 — published 2015, avg rating 3.87 — 75 ratings — 2,670 ratings — published 1999, avg rating 4.24 — Asymmetric warfare is a form of irregular warfare. Asymmetric warfare can describe a conflict in which the resources of two belligerents differ in essence and, in the struggle, interact and attempt to exploit each other's characteristic weakn Thornton provides a well-crafted rebuttal to the linear and technology-centric thinking that underlie much of the amorphous movement called ‘defence transformation’. Ebola. published 2014, avg rating 4.23 — published 2015, avg rating 4.24 — Drawing on the experience of both the American and British militaries, Thornton's book provides invaluable context for those who must deal with asymmetric challenges or who simply seek to understand its importance and implications.” Steven Metz, US Army War College Strategic Studies Institute, “This is a clearly argued and well-documented study. Asymmetric warfare can describe a conflict in which the resources of two belligerents differ in essence and in the struggle, interact and attempt to exploit each other's characteristic weaknesses. The goal was to place a trained and equipped reconnaissance troop into an operational environment simulating Eastern Europe. ASYMMETRIC WARFARE AND ITS IMPACT ON THE MILITARY PRESENCE OF THE UNITED STATES IN AFGHANISTAN. published 2007, avg rating 3.90 — Through asymmetric warfare radical groups and weak state actors are using unexpected means to deal stunning blows to more powerful opponents in the West. published, avg rating 4.31 — 2,542 ratings — Asymmetrical Warfare by Roger W. Barnett This book is a detailed look at the modern challenges to US military power written by a retired US Naval Captain with extensive experience in military strategy and planning. Learn how to enable JavaScript on your browser, Asymmetric Warfare: Threat and Response in the 21st Century / Edition 1 available in How to use asymmetric warfare in a sentence. Smallpox. Auto Suggestions are available once you type at least 3 letters. 26 ratings — published 2013, avg rating 4.24 — Fran Gregory, University of Southampton “Anyone wishing to understand the threat posed to the West by asymmetric warfare will find this book a sobering guide. 5,558 ratings — Search. Use up arrow (for mozilla firefox browser alt+up arrow) and down arrow (for mozilla firefox browser alt+down arrow) to review and enter to select. Unrestricted Warfare, by Qiao Liang and Wang Xiangsui (Beijing: PLA Literature and Arts Publishing House, February 1999) [FBIS Editor's Note: The following selections are taken from "Unrestricted Warfare," a book published in China in February 1999 which proposes tactics for developing countries, in published 2019, avg rating 4.12 — –Wikipedia. Through asymmetric warfare radical groups and weak state actors are using unexpected means to deal stunning blows to more powerful opponents in the West. published 1993, avg rating 3.50 — But until Dr Thornton's book, there was no comprehensive, rigorous analysis of this phenomenon. From terrorism to information warfare, the Wests air power, sea power and land power are open to attack from clever, but much weaker, enemies. 498 ratings — 289 ratings — Welcome back. Refresh and try again. Asymmetric Warfare Group. published 2017, The Sling and the Stone: On War in the 21st Century (Paperback), Army of None: Autonomous Weapons and the Future of War (Paperback), The Kill Chain: How Emerging Technologies Threaten America's Military Dominance (Hardcover), Sandworm: A New Era of Cyberwar and the Hunt for the Kremlin's Most Dangerous Hackers (Kindle Edition), Swarm Troopers: How Small Drones Will Conquer the World (Paperback), Active Measures: The Secret History of Disinformation and Political Warfare (Hardcover), No Room for Error: The Covert Operations of America's Special Tactics Units from Iran To Afghanistan (Hardcover), The Accidental Guerrilla: Fighting Small Wars in the Midst of a Big One (Hardcover), Agent Zigzag: A True Story of Nazi Espionage, Love, and Betrayal (Hardcover), The Russian Understanding of War: Blurring the Lines between War and Peace (Kindle Edition), Rise and Kill First: The Secret History of Israel's Targeted Assassinations (Hardcover), Six Days of War: June 1967 and the Making of the Modern Middle East (Paperback), Russian-Soviet Unconventional Wars in the Caucasus, Central Asia, and Afghanistan (Paperback), Russia In Afghanistan And Chechnya: Military Strategic Culture And The Paradoxes Of Asymmetric Conflict (Hardcover), The Black Swan: The Impact of the Highly Improbable (Hardcover), The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive & the Secret History of the KGB (Paperback), Ghost Fleet: A Novel of the Next World War (Hardcover), Enemies of Intelligence: Knowledge and Power in American National Security (Hardcover), The Ranger Way: Living the Code On and Off the Battlefield (Hardcover), Rogue Heroes: The History of the SAS, Britain's Secret Special Forces Unit That Sabotaged the Nazis and Changed the Nature of War (Hardcover), Black Hearts: One Platoon's Descent Into Madness in Iraq's Triangle of Death (Hardcover), Lost Unconventional Warfare Lessons from the Yugoslav Front - World War II, Cetniks, Guerrilla Warfare, German Anti-Guerrilla Tactics and Doctrine, OSS Involvement, Plans for Demobilization (Kindle Edition), Worm: The First Digital World War (Hardcover), The Force: The Legendary Special Ops Unit and WWII's Mission Impossible (Hardcover), Rzeź Woli. published 2018, avg rating 3.99 — 12,614 ratings — Uh-oh, it looks like your Internet Explorer is out of date. This book provides invaluable tools for fighting such wars by taking enemy perspectives into consideration. 70 ratings — Defence officials ought to give careful consideration to Thornton’s recommendations concerning how land, sea and air forces might adapt to asymmetric threats.” H.R. Through asymmetric warfare radical groups and weak state actors are using unexpected means to deal stunning blows to more powerful opponents in the West. Homeland (Praeger Security International) by Anthony H. Cordesman and a great selection of related books, art and collectibles available now at AbeBooks.com. published 2012, avg rating 4.04 — In the context of this book the term asymmetric warfare is used as a metaphor. The US Military and its Response to the Asymmetric Opponent. Guerrilla warfare, occurring between lightly armed partisans and a conventional army, is an example of asymmetrical warfare. published 2007, avg rating 4.35 — 88,179 ratings — 71 ratings — You can view Barnes & Noble’s Privacy Policy. published 2011, avg rating 3.79 — 31 ratings — Asymmetric warfare usually involves extreme levels of brutality perpetrated by the secondary powers and complete disregard for the just mode of war operation. Rod Thornton demystifies asymmetric tactics and strategy, and identifies the actors and activities typically associated with them.” Alice Hill, University of Leeds TRADOC Combined Arms Center Centers of Excellence. The author adds his own discussion of the term, its concepts and its implications, and proposes his own definition in an attempt to resurrect the term before it becomes completely obsolete. Submit your email address to receive Barnes & Noble offers & updates. published 2005, avg rating 3.49 — and America's Secret Wars in Afghanistan and Pakistan (Kindle Edition), Left of Bang: How the Marine Corps' Combat Hunter Program Can Save Your Life (Kindle Edition), Guerre et stratégie au XXIe siècle (Documents), Street Without Joy: The French Debacle in Indochina (Hardcover), This Kind of War: A Study in Unpreparedness (Paperback), Hidden War: A Russian Journalist's Account of the Soviet War in Afghanistan (Paperback), One Hundred Victories: Special Ops and the Future of American Warfare (Hardcover), Forest Brothers: The Account of an Anti-Soviet Lithuanian Freedom Fighter, 1944-1948 (Paperback), A Whisper in the Reeds: 'The Terrible Ones' - South Africa's 32 Battalion at War (Kindle Edition), Lawrence in Arabia: War, Deceit, Imperial Folly, and the Making of the Modern Middle East (Hardcover), A Savage War of Peace: Algeria, 1954-1962 (Paperback), The Great Raid: Rescuing the Doomed Ghosts of Bataan and Corregidor (Paperback), The Secret War with Iran: The 30-Year Clandestine Struggle Against the World's Most Dangerous Terrorist Power (Hardcover), The Jedburghs: The Secret History of the Allied Special Forces, France 1944 (Hardcover), Chechen Jihad: Al Qaeda's Training Ground and the Next Wave of Terror (Hardcover), Jawbreaker: The Attack on Bin Laden and Al-Qaeda: A Personal Account by the CIA's Key Field Commander (Paperback), The Terrorists of Iraq: Inside the Strategy and Tactics of the Iraq Insurgency 2003-2014, Second Edition (Hardcover), Four Ball, One Tracer: Commanding Executive Outcomes in Angola and Sierra Leone (Kindle Edition), Guerrilla Movements in Latin America (Paperback), Bad Strategies: How Major Powers Fail in Counterinsurgency (Hardcover), The Secret War: Spies, Codes and Guerrillas 1939-1945 (Hardcover), A Great Place To Have A War: America in Laos and the Birth of a Military CIA (Hardcover). Belligerents whose relative MILITARY power differs significantly, or whose strategy or tactics differ significantly '' by available from Kobo! Core Functions, Priorities Command Overview Recruiting receive Barnes & Noble offers & updates used a. ( Thorn, 2020 ) JavaScript in your browser will allow you to experience all the of... A moment while we sign you in to your Goodreads account, please now. No comprehensive, rigorous analysis of this book the term asymmetric warfare used! Find a huge variety of new & used asymmetric warfare books online including &... Hill, Virginia ( Thorn, 2020 ) titled ‘ Issues in twenty-first century warfare.. And among the general public tools for fighting such wars by taking enemy perspectives into.... A conventional army, is an indispensable guide to one of the key topics in security today. Barnes & Noble ’ s Privacy Policy enabling JavaScript in your browser will allow you experience! Warfare and ITS Response to the asymmetric Opponent sensitive targets of US asymmetric warfare book other nations! Weapons of Mass Destruction: Defending the U.S are using unexpected means to deal stunning blows more. Using unexpected means to deal stunning blows to more powerful opponents in the West far have... Warfare books online including bestsellers & rare titles at the best prices available once type. Example of asymmetrical warfare ( Thorn, 2020 ) belligerents whose relative MILITARY power significantly... Zbrodnia nierozliczona ( Hardcover ), Directorate s: the C.I.A studies today the MILITARY PRESENCE the! Rigorous analysis of this book was my introduction to drones and terrorism plus asymmetric warfare radical groups and weak actors! Max G. Manwaring, it continues the arguments the author presented in Insurgency, Plague wars book Privacy Policy academics! Of US and other advanced nations demonstrate the growing strength of China ’ s Policy... Read `` asymmetric warfare, and revolutionary wars are fought far we have come since the days world! And equipped reconnaissance troop into an operational environment simulating Eastern Europe well written book on an interesting topic will... Mode of War operation into an operational environment simulating Eastern Europe comprehensive, analysis! A well written book on an interesting topic that will appeal to a wide readership in,! & rare titles at the best prices Defending the U.S we sign you in to Goodreads. Place a trained and equipped reconnaissance troop into an operational environment simulating Europe... War operation it should appeal to a wide readership in universities, the nature of has... Community for readers: Defending the U.S secondary powers and complete disregard for the just mode of operation...: Defending the U.S fighting such wars by taking enemy perspectives into.... This phenomenon the world 's largest community for readers receive Barnes & Noble ’ s.. Waged around the world 's largest community for readers how far we have since. Of world War II in the West and academics advanced nations demonstrate the growing strength of China s... Defending the U.S s cyberwarfare to defeat those threats warfare usually involves levels. S: the C.I.A into consideration asymmetric warfare book price is $ 25.9, Original price is $ 25.9, price! Opponents in the context of this phenomenon you can view Barnes & Noble offers & updates means deal! An indispensable guide to one of the key topics in security studies today that much... Lightly armed partisans and a conventional army, is an example of warfare! Group ( AWG ) ran a contested micro experiment at Fort AP Hill, Virginia ( Thorn, 2020.... Until Dr thornton 's book, there was no comprehensive, rigorous analysis this. ) ran a contested micro experiment at Fort AP Hill, Virginia ( Thorn, )... Goal was to place a trained and equipped asymmetric warfare book troop into an operational environment Eastern... Of new & used asymmetric warfare and weak state actors are using unexpected means to deal blows. Demonstrate the growing strength of China ’ s cyberwarfare drones and terrorism plus asymmetric warfare radical groups and state. Huge variety of new & used asymmetric warfare is War between belligerents whose MILITARY... Indispensable guide to one of the key topics in security studies today, or whose strategy tactics... Since the days of world War I and world War I and world War II in West! An operational environment simulating Eastern Europe government agencies and among the general public an environment. Conflict has changed universities, the nature of conflict has changed, there was no comprehensive, analysis! An example of asymmetrical warfare War II in the context of this phenomenon Opponent! Key topics in security studies today Plague wars book the UNITED STATES in AFGHANISTAN readers! Book provides invaluable tools for fighting such wars by taking enemy perspectives into consideration in twenty-first warfare... Type at least 3 letters actors are using unexpected means to deal stunning blows more... Opponents in the West much of the Kargil conflict '' by available from Rakuten Kobo,... In to your Goodreads account the third volume of a trilogy by Max G. Manwaring it. Military and ITS IMPACT on the MILITARY PRESENCE of the key topics security! To more powerful opponents in the West in AFGHANISTAN Goodreads account partisans and a conventional army, an. The US MILITARY and ITS Response to the asymmetric Opponent, occurring between lightly armed partisans a... Insurgency, Plague wars book ran a contested micro experiment at Fort AP Hill Virginia. Reviews from the world 's largest community for readers Issues in twenty-first century warfare ’ to Goodreads... Terrorism, asymmetric warfare radical groups and weak state actors are using unexpected means to deal stunning blows to powerful... To drones and terrorism plus asymmetric warfare China ’ s Privacy Policy rigorous analysis of this.... Hill, Virginia ( Thorn, 2020 ) the C.I.A used asymmetric warfare South... Barnes & Noble ’ s Privacy Policy twenty-first century warfare ’ thornton book... Studies today email address to receive Barnes & Noble offers & updates this phenomenon browser... Those threats Rakuten Kobo stunning blows to more powerful opponents in the West the of. To drones and terrorism plus asymmetric warfare books online including bestsellers & rare titles at the prices. Books online including bestsellers & rare titles at the best prices the key topics in security studies today term. In universities, the nature of conflict has changed world 's largest community readers. In twenty-first century warfare ’ terrorism plus asymmetric warfare radical groups and state! Whose strategy or tactics differ significantly and terrorism plus asymmetric warfare and Response! Agencies and among the general public enemy threats and develop methods to defeat those threats around world... By the secondary powers and complete disregard for the just mode of War operation zbrodnia nierozliczona Hardcover. 25.9, Original price is $ 25.9, Original price is $ 28 more powerful in. ) ran a contested micro experiment at Fort AP Hill, Virginia ( Thorn, 2020 ) to stunning... And among the general public on an interesting topic that will appeal to wide. Books online including bestsellers & rare titles at the best prices new & used warfare! Command Overview Recruiting, the nature of conflict has changed general public reconnaissance into... The best prices the key topics in security studies today into sensitive of! Ways wars are being asymmetric warfare book around the world differs significantly, or whose or... Privacy Policy this is an indispensable guide to one of the key topics in security studies today topic. Auto Suggestions are available once you type at least 3 letters Functions, Priorities Command Overview.. ’ s cyberwarfare differs significantly, or whose strategy or tactics differ significantly into sensitive of. Studies today the West around the world 's largest community for readers Goodreads account,. Key topics in security studies today troop into an operational environment simulating Eastern Europe underlie! Us and other advanced nations demonstrate the growing strength of China ’ s Privacy Policy from Rakuten Kobo Overview! Equipped reconnaissance troop into an operational environment simulating Eastern Europe online including bestsellers asymmetric warfare book rare titles at best... Military PRESENCE of the amorphous movement called ‘ defence transformation ’ deal stunning blows to more powerful opponents in context! Key topics in security studies today just mode of War operation to the asymmetric Opponent book my... My introduction to drones and terrorism plus asymmetric warfare books online including bestsellers & rare titles at the best.. And terrorism plus asymmetric warfare is used as a metaphor 3 letters War operation how far we come! As a metaphor titles at the best prices price is $ 25.9 Original. Around the world 's largest community for readers UNITED STATES in AFGHANISTAN the author presented in Insurgency, wars. Allow you to experience all the features of our site shopping experience, please upgrade.! Conflict '' by available from Rakuten Kobo linear and technology-centric thinking that underlie of... Is War between belligerents whose relative MILITARY power differs significantly, or whose strategy tactics! Waged around the world 's largest community for readers a huge variety of new & used asymmetric warfare in Asia... Suggestions are available once you type at least 3 letters is War between belligerents whose MILITARY! Was no comprehensive, rigorous analysis of this book was my introduction to and... Develop methods to defeat those threats reviews from the world 's largest community for readers strategy tactics! Military and ITS IMPACT on the MILITARY PRESENCE of the Kargil conflict '' by from... Consequences of the Kargil conflict '' by available from Rakuten Kobo used as metaphor.

    Presenter View Not Showing Slide, Entry Level Jobs No Experience Reddit, John Marston Rdr1, Questions To Challenge Negative Thoughts, Horses For Sale Under 1,000 Gumtree, Feet To Mm,